Volume 7, Issue 3 (Autumn 2017 -- 2017)                   PTJ 2017, 7(3): 185-192 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Alizadeh M H, Shahab A, Minonetzhad H, Rajabi R. Studying the Predictive Power of Common FIFA Pre-Season Medical Assessments and Functional Tests With the Rate and Severity of Injuries to Elite Football Players. PTJ. 2017; 7 (3) :185-192
URL: http://ptj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-348-en.html
1- Department of Sport Mediciane and Health, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Scienses, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2- Department of Sport Mediciane and Health, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Scienses, Alborz Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (168 Views)
Purpose: The number and severity of injuries in football matches have increased in recent years. On average, the injury rate is 10 to 35 injuries per 1000 hours matching, half of which are severe and cause more than 4 weeks of absence from football matches. Recent studies have reported that pre-season functional tests may predict the future injuries to athletes; however, the related findings are contradictory. This study aims to investigate common pre-season musculoskeletal assessments approved by FIFA and functional tests to predict the rate and severity of injuries to elite football players.
Methods: A total of 92 elite football players aged 17-35 years who were members of three professional football clubs were selected for the study using purposeful sampling method. Then, five functional tests including the Y-Balance Test (YBT), Functional Movement Screen (FMS), Single-Leg Hop (SLH), Carioca and Co-Contraction Tests were performed and the pre-season medical assessment forms were collected by the club medical staff. The training and match times of the teams were recorded during the research period along with the number of players’ injuries. To predict severity and rate of injuries, univariate regression analysis was used.
Results: In total, 3120 hours of activity was recorded. Univariate regression analysis results showed that, of functional test, just SLH test could predict the severity of injury (P=0.035), and Carolina test (combination of Carioca and Co-Contraction Tests) predicted the injury rate (P=0.010).
Conclusion: SLH test was able to predict mild injuries (time-loss injuries with less than 10 days), and Carolina test could predict injury rate. Screening tests for functional and medical activities have very limited application in identifying athletes who are at risk of injury in various sports.
Full-Text [PDF 646 kb]   (63 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (8 Views)  
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2017/03/17 | Accepted: 2017/08/20 | Published: 2017/10/1

References
1. FIFA Communication Division, Information Services. FIFA big Count 2006: 270 million people active in football. Zürich: Fédération Internationale de Football Association; 2007.
2. Cohen M, Abdalla RJ, Ejnisman B, Amaro JT. [Orthopedic injuries in football (Portuguese)]. Brazilian Journal of Orthopedics. 1997; 32(12):940-4.
3. Fuller CW, Ekstrand J, Junge A, Andersen TE, Bahr R, Dvorak J, et al. Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures in studies of football (soccer) injuries. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2006; 16(2):83-92. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2006.00528.x] [PMID] [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2006.00528.x]
4. Junge A, Dvorak J. Soccer injuries. Sports Medicine. 2004; 34(13):929-38. [DOI:10.2165/00007256-200434130-00004] [PMID] [DOI:10.2165/00007256-200434130-00004]
5. Zarei M, Rahnama N, Rajabi R. The effect of soccer players' positional role in Iran super league on sport injury rates. World Journal of Sport Sciences. 2009; 2(1):60-4.
6. Paus V, Torrengo F, Del Compare P. Incidence of injuries in juvenil soccer players. Revista de la Asociación Argentina de Traumatología del Deporte. 2003; 10(1):28-34.
7. Junge A, Lamprecht M, Stamm H, Hasler H, Bizzini M, Tschopp M, et al. Countrywide campaign to prevent soccer injuries in Swiss amateur players. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2011; 39(1):57-63. [DOI:10.1177/0363546510377424] [PMID] [DOI:10.1177/0363546510377424]
8. Barengo NC, Meneses-Echávez JF, Ramírez-Vélez R, Cohen DD, Tovar G, Bautista JEC. The impact of the FIFA 11+ training program on injury prevention in football players: A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(11):11986-12000. [DOI:10.3390/ijerph111111986] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.3390/ijerph111111986]
9. Akturk A, Gouttebarge V, Frings-Dresen MH, Inklaar, H. Medical examinations in Dutch professional football (soccer): A qualitative study. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2014; 15(4):343-51.
10. Fuller CW, Ojelade EO, Taylor A. Preparticipation medical evaluation in professional sport in the UK: Theory or practice. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2007; 41(12):890-6. [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2007.038935] [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2007.038935]
11. Hughes T, Sergeant JC, Parkes MJ, Callaghan MJ. Prognostic factors for specific lower extremity and spinal musculoskeletal injuries identified through medical screening and training load monitoring in professional football (soccer): A systematic review. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine. 2017; 3(1):e000263. [DOI:10.1136/bmjsem-2017-000263] [DOI:10.1136/bmjsem-2017-000263]
12. Kiesel K, Plisky PJ, Voight ML. Can serious injury in professional football be predicted by a preseason functional movement screen. North American Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2007; 2(3):147-58. [PMID] [PMID] [PMCID]
13. Plisky PJ, Rauh MJ, Kaminski TW, Underwood FB. Star Excursion Balance Test as a predictor of lower extremity injury in high school basketball players. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2006; 36(12):911-9. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2006.2244] [PMID] [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2006.2244]
14. Butler RJ, Lehr ME, Fink ML, Kiesel KB, Plisky PJ. Dynamic balance performance and noncontact lower extremity injury in college football players: An initial study. Sports Health. 2013; 5(5):417-22. [DOI:10.1177/1941738113498703] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.1177/1941738113498703]
15. Smith CA, Chimera NJ, Warren M. Association of y balance test reach asymmetry and injury in division I athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2015; 47(1):136-41. [DOI:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000380] [PMID] [DOI:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000380]
16. Brumitt J, Heiderscheit BC, Manske RC, Niemuth PE, Rauh MJ. Lower extremity functional tests and risk of injury in division iii collegiate athletes. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2013; 8(3):216-27. [PMID] [PMCID] [PMID] [PMCID]
17. Manske R, Reiman M. Functional performance testing for power and return to sports. Sports Health. 2013; 5(3):244-50. [DOI:10.1177/1941738113479925] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.1177/1941738113479925]
18. Azzam MG, Throckmorton TW, Smith RA, Graham D, Scholler J, Azar FM. The functional movement screen as a predictor of injury in professional basketball players. Current Orthopaedic Practice. 2015; 26(6):619-23. [DOI:10.1097/BCO.0000000000000296] [DOI:10.1097/BCO.0000000000000296]
19. Brumitt J, Engilis A, Eubanks A, Mattocks A, Peet J, Bush N. Risk factors associated with noncontact time-loss lower-quadrant injury in male collegiate soccer players. Science and Medicine in Football. 2017; 1(2):96-101. [DOI:10.1080/24733938.2017.1282164] [DOI:10.1080/24733938.2017.1282164]
20. Dossa K, Cashman G, Howitt S, West B, Murray N. Can injury in major junior hockey players be predicted by a pre-season functional movement screen: A prospective cohort study. The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association. 2014; 58(4):421-7. [PMID] [PMCID] [PMID] [PMCID]
21. Gonell AC, Romero JAP, Soler LM. Relationship between the Y balance test scores and soft tissue injury incidence in a soccer team. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2015; 10(7):955-66. [PMID] [PMCID] [PMID] [PMCID]
22. Kiesel KB, Butler RJ, Plisky PJ. Prediction of injury by limited and asymmetrical fundamental movement patterns in american football players. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. 2014; 23(2):88-94. [DOI:10.1123/JSR.2012-0130] [PMID] [DOI:10.1123/JSR.2012-0130]
23. Morgan BE, Oberlander MA. An examination of injuries in major league soccer: The inaugural season. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2001; 29(4):426-30. [DOI:10.1177/03635465010290040701] [PMID] [DOI:10.1177/03635465010290040701]
24. Marques VB, Medeiros TM, de Souza Stigger F, Nakamura FY, Baroni BM. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS™) in elite young soccer players between 14 and 20 years: Composite score, individual-test scores and asymmetries. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2017; 12(6):977-85. [DOI:10.26603/ijspt20170977] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.26603/ijspt20170977]
25. Duke SR, Martin SE, Gaul CA. Preseason functional movement screen predicts risk of time-loss injury in experienced male rugby ::::union:::: Athletes. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2017; 31(10):2740-7. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001838] [PMID] [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001838]
26. Moran RW, Schneiders AG, Mason J, Sullivan SJ. Do Functional Movement Screen (FMS) composite scores predict subsequent injury? A systematic review with meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2017; 51(23):1661–9. [DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2016-096938] [DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2016-096938]
27. Euser AM, Zoccali C, Jager KJ, Dekker FW. Cohort studies: Prospective versus retrospective. Nephron Clinical Practice. 2009; 113(3):c214-c7. [DOI:10.1159/000235241] [PMID] [DOI:10.1159/000235241]
28. Fünten Kad, Faude O, Lensch J, Meyer T. Injury characteristics in the German professional male soccer leagues after a shortened winter break. Journal of Athletic Training. 2014; 49(6):786-93. [DOI:10.4085/1062-6050-49.3.51] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.4085/1062-6050-49.3.51]
29. Keller CS, Noyes FR, Buncher CR. The medical aspects of soccer injury epidemiology. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1988; 16(1_suppl):S-105-S-12. [DOI:10.1177/03635465880160s121] [DOI:10.1177/03635465880160S121]
30. Ekstrand J. Epidemiology of football injuries. Science & Sports. 2008; 23(2):73-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.scispo.2007.10.012] [DOI:10.1016/j.scispo.2007.10.012]
31. Budnar Jr RG, Birdwell R, Moody C, Hill DW, Duplanty AA, Jackson AW, et al. Functional movement screentm scores in collegiate track and field athletes in relation to injury risk and performance. International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings. 2013; 2(5);68. [PMCID]
32. Lephart SM, Perrin DH, Fu FH, Minger K. Functional performance tests for the anterior cruciate ligament insufficient athlete. Journal of Athletic Training. 1991; 26(1):44-50.
33. Kong DH, Yang SJ, Ha JK, Jang SH, Seo JG, Kim JG. Validation of functional performance tests after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Knee Surgery & Related Research. 2012; 24(1):40-5. [DOI:10.5792/ksrr.2012.24.1.40] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.5792/ksrr.2012.24.1.40]
34. Hamilton RT, Shultz SJ, Schmitz RJ, Perrin DH. Triple-hop distance as a valid predictor of lower limb strength and power. Journal of Athletic Training. 2008; 43(2):144-51. [DOI:10.4085/1062-6050-43.2.144] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.4085/1062-6050-43.2.144]
35. Reid A, Birmingham TB, Stratford PW, Alcock GK, Giffin JR. Hop testing provides a reliable and valid outcome measure during rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Physical Therapy. 2007; 87(3):337-49. [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20060143] [PMID] [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20060143]
36. Moradi K, Mioonejad H, Rajabi R. [The immediate effect of core stability exercises on postural sway in athletes with functional ankle instability (Persian)]. Scientific Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 2015; 4(3):101-10.
37. Chalmers S, Fuller JT, Debenedictis TA, Townsley S, Lynagh M, Gleeson C, et al. Asymmetry during preseason Functional Movement Screen testing is associated with injury during a junior Australian football season. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2017; 20(7):653-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.jsams.2016.12.076] [PMID] [DOI:10.1016/j.jsams.2016.12.076]
38. Bakken A, Targett S, Bere T, Eirale C, Farooq A, Mosler AB, et al. Muscle strength is a poor screening test for predicting lower extremity injuries in professional male soccer players: A 2-year prospective cohort study. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2018; 46(6): 1481-91. [DOI:10.1177/0363546518756028] [DOI:10.1177/0363546518756028]
39. Dallinga JM, Benjaminse A, Lemmink KA. Which screening tools can predict injury to the lower extremities in team sports? Sports Medicine. 2012; 42(9):791-815. [DOI:10.1007/BF03262295] [PMID] [DOI:10.1007/BF03262295]
40. van Beijsterveldt AM, Steffen K, Stubbe JH, Frederiks JE, van de Port IG, Backx FJ. Soccer injuries and recovery in Dutch male amateur soccer players: Results of a prospective cohort study. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 2014; 24(4):337-42. [DOI:10.1097/JSM.0000000000000028] [PMID] [DOI:10.1097/JSM.0000000000000028]
41. Bonazza NA, Smuin D, Onks CA, Silvis ML, Dhawan A. Reliability, validity, and injury predictive value of the functional movement screen: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2017; 45(3):725-32. [DOI:10.1177/0363546516641937] [PMID] [DOI:10.1177/0363546516641937]
42. Dorrel BS, Long T, Shaffer S, Myer GD. Evaluation of the functional movement screen as an injury prediction tool among active adult populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Health. 2015; 7(6):532-7. [DOI:10.1177/1941738115607445] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.1177/1941738115607445]
43. Brumitt J, Engilis A, Isaak D, Briggs A, Mattocks A. Preseason jump and hop measures in male collegiate basketball players: An epidemiologic report. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2016; 11(6):954-61. [PMID] [PMCID] [PMID] [PMCID]
44. Junge A, Dvořák J. Football injuries during the 2014 FIFA World Cup. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2015; 49(9):599-602. [DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2014-094469] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2014-094469]
45. Hewett TE. Prediction of future injury in sport: Primary and secondary anterior cruciate ligament injury risk and return to sport as a model. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2017; 47(4):228-31. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2017.0603] [PMID] [DOI:10.2519/jospt.2017.0603]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA code

Send email to the article author


© 2018 All Rights Reserved | Physical Treatments - Specific Physical Therapy Journal

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb