References Guideline

In Physical Treatments (PTJ), references should be cited according to the Vancouver reference style. Please use Endnote or similar reference managing software to insert the references. Using MS Word References tab to insert the references in the main document is highly preferred and recommended.

In-text citations

  • A citation is an acknowledgement in your text of references that support your work. It is in the form of a number that correlates with a source in your reference list.
  • In the Vancouver Style, citations within the text of the essay/paper are identified by Arabic numbers in round brackets. This applies to references in text, tables and figures.
  •  The Vancouver System assigns a number to each reference as it is cited.  A number must be used even if the author(s) is named in the sentence/text. e.g.  Smith [10] has argued that...
  • The original number assigned to the reference is reused each time the reference is cited in the text, regardless of its previous position in the text.
  • When multiple references are cited at a given place in the text, use a hyphen to join the first and last numbers that are inclusive. Use commas (without spaces) to separate non-inclusive numbers in a multiple citation e.g. [2,3,4,5,7,10] is abbreviated to [2-5,7,10].
  • Do not use a hyphen if there are no citation numbers in between that support your statement e.g. [1-2].
  • The placement of citation numbers within text should be carefully considered e.g. a particular reference may be relevant to only part of a sentence. As a general rule, reference numbers should be placed outside full stops and commas and inside colons and semicolons. For examples: There have been efforts to replace mouse inoculation testing with invitro tests, such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assays [57,60] or polymerase chain reaction [20-22] but these remain experimental.


Elements of the Citation

Author(s) – Family name and initials, Multiple authors separated by a comma. Title of book. Edition of book if later than 1st ed. Place of Publication: Publisher Name; Year of Publication.

Reference Type

In-text example

Reference list example

One author

The book, “Secrets from the black bag”,

by Butler [1] shows that ...


Butler [1] purported ‘...’

1. Butler SW.Secrets from the Black Bag. London: The Royal College of General Practitioners; 2005.

Two to six authors

‘... needed to influence policy.’ [2]


Cheers, Darracott and Lonne have highlighted the fact that ‘...’ [2]

2. Cheers B, Darracott R, Lonne B. Social care practice in rural communities. Sydney: The Federation Press; 2007.

Six or more authors

Professionals in collaboration [3]

3. Hofmeyr GJ, Neilson JP, Alfirevic Z, Crowther CA, Gulmezoglu AM, Hodnett ED et al. A Cochrane pocketbook: Pregnancy and childbirth. Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2008.

No author

‘ not die from the disease [4]

4. A guide for women with early breast cancer. Sydney: National Breast Cancer; 2003.

Multiple works by the same author

The main clinical and research interests of Dr Marilyn Campbell [5-6] are focused on ...

5. Campbell MA. A is for anxiety: A parent’sguide to managing anxious children. Brisbane:PostPressed;2007.

6. Campbell MA. Anthony the shy alien. Brisbane: Post Pressed; 2006.

Different Editions

What has become known as the “Bible of General Practice” in Australia [7]...

7. Murtagh J. John Murtagh’s General practice. 4th ed. Sydney: McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd; 2007. An edition number is placed after the title of the work. This is not necessary for a first edition

Edited book

In all cases, it is important to note the outer diameter of the tube [8] ...

8.  Brooks A, Mahoney P, Rowlands B, editors. ABC of tubes, drains, lines and frames. West Sussex: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.

Book in a series

The binding of ligand to most seven- transmembrane (STM) G-protein- coupled receptors leads to changes in the coupling of G proteins to the receptor [9] ...

Name of book = Chemokine receptors Title of series = Methods in enzymology

9. Bennett GL, Horuk R. Iodination of chemokines for use in receptor binding analysis. In: Horuk R, editor. Chemokine receptors. New York (NY): Academic Press; 1997. P. 134-48. (Methods in enzymology; vol 288).

Electronic book – entire book

Bartlett concludes that [10]...

10. Bartlett A. Breastwork: Rethinking breastfeeding [monograph online]. Sydney, NSW: University of New South Wales Press; 2005 [cited 2009 Nov 10]. Available from: NetLibrary

Translation of a book

Luria discovers that [11] ...

11. Luria AR. The mind of a mnemonist [L. Solotaroff, trans]. New York: Avon Books; 1969.

Chapter in an edited book

As discussed by Rowlands and Haine [12]


12. Rowlands TE, Haine LS. Acute limb ischaemia. In: Donnelly R, London NJM, editors. ABC of arterial and venous disease. 2nd ed. West Sussex. Blackwell Publishing; 2009.

Chapter in a book

...due to endometriosis [13]...

13. Speroff L, Fritz MA. Clinical gynaecologic endocrinology and infertility. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2005. Chapter 29, Endometriosis; p.1103-33.

Need to enter the Chapter information and page numbers manually

Chapter from an electronic book

Darwin believes that the natural selection [14] ...

14. Darwin C. On the Origin of Species by means of natural selection or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life [internet]. London: John Murray; 1859. Chapter 5, Laws of Variation. [cited 2010 Apr 22]. Available from:

Persian Book

Rafeei believes that the natural selection [12] ...

12. Rafeei T. [Ritmic movements and games: Coaching, therapists and families manuals (Persian)]. Tehran: Danzheh Publication; 2013, pp:1-61.


Dictionary or Encyclopedia

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example


‘is defined as ... [15]

15. Stedman’s medical dictionary. 26th ed. Baltimore:Williams & Wilkins; 1995. Apraxia; p.119-20.

Note:  Include the defined topic – e.g. apraxia

Dictionary (online)

‘is defined as ... [16]

16.  Stedman’s medical dictionary. *Internet+. 26th

ed.  Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1995. Apraxia;

p.119 -20. [cited 2009 Nov 11]. Available from:


‘Hanrahan has advocated that ...’ [17]

17. Brookman F. Hair care products. In:  McDonough J, Egolf K, Reid JV, editors. The Advertising Age encyclopedia of advertising. New York: Fitzroy Dearborn; 2003. vol 2 p. 703-08


Journal Articles

Elements of the Citation

Author(s) – Family name and initials. Title of article. Title of journal – abbreviated Publication year, month, day (month & day only if available); volume(issue):pages

Note: Journal titles may be abbreviated according to the style used in the PubMed database. Go to the PubMed Journals database site: to look up journal abbreviations (to find the full journal name) or journal names in full (to find the journal abbreviation). Choose the Journals in NCBI Databases ( link.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Standard journal article – one author

As highlighted by Snowdon, [18]...

18. Snowdon J. Severe depression in old age. Medicine Today. 2002 Dec;3(12):40-47.

Standard journal article – two authors

McInnes & Bollen [19] have developed a perspective which identifies

19. McInnes D, Bollen J. Learning on the job: metaphors of choreography and the practice of sex in sex-on- premises venues. Venereology 2000; 13(1):27-36.

Standard journal article – three to six authors

By using meta-analysis, Skalsky et al [20] ...

20. Skalsky K, Yahav D, Bishara J, Pitlik S, Leibovici L, Paul M. Treatment of human brucellosis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2008 Mar 29;336(7646):701-4.

Journal article – more than six authors

Hanna et al [21] report in this article that ...

21. Hanna JN, McBride WJ, Brookes DL, Shield J, Taylor CT, Smith IL, Craig SB, Smith GA. Hendra virus infection in a veterinarian. Med J Aust. 2006 Nov 20;185(10):562-64.

Journal article – in press

O’Leary [22] states that...

22. O’Leary C. Vitamin C does little to prevent winter cold. The West Australian.  Forthcoming 2005 June

Electronic article – with DOI number

Fletcher & Wagstaff [23] argue that


23. Fletcher D, Wagstaff CRD. Organisational psychology in elite sport: its emergence, application and future. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2009;10(4):427-34. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport. 2009.03.009.

Electronic article

– without DOI number

According the Lemanek [24]...

24. Lemanek K. Adherence issues in the medical management of asthma. J Pediatr Psychol [ Internet]. 1990 [cited 2010 Apr 22];15(4):437-58. Available from:

Enter cited date manually and change medium to internet  or leave as serial online as entered by Endnote

Cochrane Library Review

Results found by Shaw et al [25]...

25. Shaw KA, O'Rourke P, Del Mar C, Kenardy J. Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet] 2005 [cited 2010 Apr 10]. Available from: /frame.html

Article from UQ eReserve


Results found by Shaw [26]...

26. Shaw J. Epidemiology and prevention of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Med J Aust [Internet] 2003;179:379-83. Available from: University of Queensland Library E-Reserve

Persian Article

Jafari found by Shaw [27]...

27. Jafari Z, Karimi H, Sazmand AH, Malayeri S. [The comparison of handedness between 12-18 year old normal and congenitally deaf students (Persian)]. Journal of Rehabilitation. 2007; 8(1):25-34.


Conference papers

Elements of the citation

Author(s) of paper – Family name and initials. Title of paper. In: Editor(s) Family name and initials, editor(s). Title of conference; Date of conference;  Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher’s name; Year of publication. p. Page numbers.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Published conference paper

This is well documented in the literature. [27]

27. Bengtsson S, Solheim BG. Enforcement of data protection, privacy and security in medical informatics. In: Lun KC. Degoulet P. Piemme TE, Reinhoff O, editors. MEDINFO 92. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Medical Informatics; 1992 Sep 6-10; Geneva, Switzerland. Amsterdam: North Holland; 1992. P. 1561-5

Unpublished conference paper

It has been found that endemic STD’s [28]

28. Bowden FJ, Fairley CK. Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: estimations of effective rates of partner exchange. Paper presented at: The Scientific Meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians; 1996 June 24-25; Darwin, Australia.

Conference proceedings

Research [29] supports...

29. Kimura J. Shibasaki H, editors. Recent advances in clinical neurophysiology. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of EMG and Clinical Neurophysiology; 1995 Oct 15-19; Kyoto, Japan. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1996.

Note: In the “conference title” field type in “Paper presented at:” and then enter all details of conference including the date and where conference took place.

Enter the place of publication in the “Conference location” field


In the ‘Publisher’ field – enter the place of publication, publisher and the year eg. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1996.


Newspaper and magazine articles

Elements of the citation

Author(s) – family name and initials. Article title. Newspaper title (edition of paper eg. Weekend edition). Date of publication – year month (3 letter abbreviation) day: Sect. Location eg. A:12 or Business 5 (5 is the page number) column number is applicable eg. col. 1) (Sect = Section)

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Newspaper article with author

“many parents did not feed their babies enough” [30-31]...

30. Purdon F. Colder babies at risk of SIDS.The Courier Mail 2010 Mar8:9

31. Robertson J. Not married to the art. The Courier Mail (Weekend edition). 2010 Mar 6-7:Sect. ETC:15

Newspaper article without author

The counsellors [32]...

32. Meeting the needs of counsellors. The Courier Mail 2001 May 5:22

Magazine article

The findings of the research [33]...

33. Marano HE. Making of a perfectionist. Psychol Today. 2008 Mar-Apr;41:80-86

Electronic newspaper or magazine article

Reports of the extent of damage in Chile [34]...

34. Bajak F. Why Chile dodged Haiti-style ruin. Toronto Star (Canada) [serial online].  2010 Feb 28 [cited 2010 Mar 14]; Sect. News:A14 Available from: Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre

Electronic newspaper article on the Internet

The success of the Clem7 tunnel [34]...

35. Drivers told: “Don’t use Clem7 tunnel”.The Courier Mail [Internet]. 2010 Mar 16 [cited2010 Mar 16]; Availablefrom: tunnel/story-e6freon6-1225841179464

36. Sack K. With Medicaid cuts, doctors andpatients drop out. The New York Times [Internet].2010 Mar 16 [cited 2010 Mar 16]; Health:A1.Available



Reports and other Government publications

Elements of a report citation

Author(s). Title of report. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication – year month if applicable. Total number of pages if applicable eg. 24 p. Report No.: (if applicable)

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example




/Technical report

Climate change [37]...

37.Australia. Parliament. Senate. SelectCommittee on Climate Policy. Climate policyreport. Canberra: The Senate;2009

38.Page E, Harney JM. Health hazard evaluation report. Cincinnati (OH): National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US); 2001 Feb. 24 p. Report No.:HETA2000-0139-2824



Elements of the citation for a thesis

Printed Thesis: Author. Thesis title [type of thesis]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year.

Online Thesis: Author. Thesis title [type of thesis on the internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year [cited date – year month day]. Available from: Name of database/web address

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example


The research is support by Kay [39] ...

39. Kay JG. Intracellular cytokine trafficking and phagocytosis in macrophages [PhD thesis]. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland; 2007.

Thesis – retrieved from database/internet

The research [40]...

40. Pahl KM. Preventing anxiety and promoting social and emotional strength in early childhood: an investigation of aetiological risk factors [PhD thesis]. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 24]. Available from: University of Queensland Library E-Reserve

Persian Thesis

Bandarianzadeh believed that [41]

41. Bandarianzadeh D. [Evaluation of pregnant women irontherapy in primary health care system at the villages of Kerman city (Persian)]. [MA Thesis] Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences; 1993, pp: 25–27.



Elements of the citation

Author. Title of publication [type of medium – Internet]. Place of publication (if available): Publisher (if available); Date of publication – year month day (supply year if month and day not available) [updated year month day; cited year month day]. Available from: web address.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Web page - with author

Behaviour medication [41]...

41. Atherton, J. Behaviour modification [Internet]. 2010 [updated 2010 Feb 10; cited 2010 Apr 10]. Available from: ehaviour_mod.htm

Webpage – no author

Coping with ADHD [42]...

42. The family impact of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) [Internet] 2009 Nov 1 [updated 2010 Jan 1; cited 2010 Apr 8]. Available from: andlifestyle.asp?sid=192&title=The-Family- Impact-of-Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity- Disorder-%28ADHD%29&page=2

Webpage – no date

Memory loss [43]is linked...

43. McCook A. Pre-diabetic condition linked to memory loss [internet]. 2010 [cited 2010 Apr 14]. Available from:


If neither a date of publication nor a date of copyright can be found for a Web site, use the date of update/revision and/or the date cited

Webpage – corporate author

Swine flu [44]...

44. Queensland Health. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (Human Swine Influenza) [Internet]. 2010 [updated 2010 Feb 19; cited 2010 Apr 7]. Available from: swineflu/

Web Article with DOI

Drug dependence [45]...

45. Degenhardt L, Bohnert KM, Anthony C. Assessment of cocaine and other drug dependence in the general population: ‘Gated’ vs. ‘ungated’ approaches. Drug Alcohol Depend [Internet]. 2008 Mar 1 [cited 2010 Apr 15]; 93(3):227-232. Available from: 756072/DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.09.024

Web Article with no DOI or feely available on Web

Research shows that diabetes [46]...

46. Merzouk H, Bouchenak M, Loukidi B, Madani S, Prost J, Belleville J. Fetal macrosomia related maternal poorly controlled type 1 diabetes strongly impairs serum lipoprotein concentrations and composition. J Clin Pathol [internet]. 2000 [cited 2010 Apr 15]; 53:917-923. Available from: ull.pdf+html

Image on a webpage

The image of the rash [47]

47. Scarlet Fever Rash Picture (Hardin MD Super Site Sample) [image on the Internet]. 2005 [updated 2008 Feb 1; cited 2010 Apr 14]. Available from:


Other Internet Sources:

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example


The latest fossil discover [48]...

48. Dirks, P. “Missing Link” fossil discovery in South Africa [podcast on the internet]. Sydney: ABC Radio National; 2010 [updated 2010 Apr 9; cited 2010 Apr 14]. Available from: 0/2868072.htm

Blog Post

The list [49]...

49. East J. New medical journals terms list. 2010 Jan 25 [cited 2010 Apr 20] In: East J. EndNote: EndNote updates at UQ [Internet]. St Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Library. 2007-2010- . [about 5 screens].Available from: 25/new-medical-journals-term-list/


Personal Communication (oral, written & email)

Personal communication in qualitative studies or any other applications is entered manually in the text of your document. It cannot be done through EndNote. Personal communication should be included in the text of your document – cited in text only.

Personal communication should not be included in your reference list.

It is recommended you get permission from the source/author of your personal communication. Personal communication in the text of your document must include:

  • Date of communication
  • Type of communication – oral, written (eg. Letter, written communication) or email (include email address) Affiliation (university, organisation)- optional  and highest academic degree


In a conversation with a A. B. Smith, MD (April 2010)...


According to a letter by C. D. Jones (Assoc. Prof., Dept of Philosophy, University of Pittsburgh, PA) in November 2010... According to C.D. Jones , PhD (written communication, November 2010)...


In-text: In an email from E. Ferguson, PhD ( in August 2010...

Reference List: Ferguson E. How to cite in your assignments [online]. E-mail to Abe Smith ( 2010 Apr 20 [cited 2010 April 28].

Note: It is important to keep a copy of the record.


Elements of the citation

Author. Title of brochure/pamphlet [pamphlet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Pamphlets/Broch ures

As listed in the pamphlet [50] by the...

50. Pharmaceutical Society of Australia. Medicines and driving [pamphlet]. Sydney: Pharmaceutical Society of Australia; 1998


Package Inserts (The printed material about the use and effects of the product contained in the package)

Elements of the citation

Name of Medicine [package insert]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Package Insert

One of the side effects [51] listed...

51. Lamasil [package insert]. East Hanover, NJ: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corp; 1993.


Lecture Notes

Elements of the citation

Lecturer. Title of Lecture [unpublished lecture notes]. Course code: course name, Institution where delivered; lecture given – date lecture given.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Lecture notes

In the lecture given by Smith [52]...

52. Johnson A. Week three: Foucault [unpublished lecture notes]. BESC3009: Relating with Young People, University of Queensland; lecture given 2010 Apr 20.


Video or DVD

Elements of the citation

Author/Producer (producer/director). Title [Type of Medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Publication Year. Extent (eg. 1 DVD): physical description – duration, sound, color, size.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Video or DVD

Examination of the neonate [53] revealed...

53. Robinson J (producer). Examination of the term neonate: A family centred approach [DVD]. South Hurstville, NSW: Midwifery Educational Services; 2005. 1 DVD: 37 min., sound, colour, 4¾ in.


Film or Broadcast

Elements of the citation

Producer, Director. Title [type of medium]. Series title. Place of Publication: Distributor; Date released.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Television or radio programs

As seen in the MacNeil/Lehrer news hour [54]

54. The medical profession in the 1990’s *television broadcast]. The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour. New York, Washington D.C.: Public Broadcasting Service; 1993 Oct 11


Indirect citation/Secondary source

A secondary source/indirect citation:  Is when the ideas of one author are published in another author’s text but you have not read or accessed the original author’s work. In the list of references provide the details of the author of the work you have read.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Book as a secondary source

Higgins discusses Newman’s research in his work [55] ...

55. Higgins D. Horizons: the poetics and theory of the intermedia. Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press: 1984

Journal as a secondary source

Clements quoted Chandler in his article [56] ...

56. Clements C. The facts about cocaine (drugs), Science and Children [serial online]. 2007 [cited 2010 Apr 20]; 44(7): 44. Available from: ProQuest


Tables, Figures, Images or Appendices

Elements of the citation

Journal example:

Enter your normal journal reference followed by: space Table/Figure/Appendix Number of table/figure/appendix from original source, Title of table/figure/image/appendix from original source; p. Page number of table/figure/appendix from original source.

Book example:

Enter your normal book reference followed by: space Table/Figure/Appendix Number of table/figure/appendix from original source, Title of table/figure/image/appendix from original source; p. Page number of table/figure/appendix from original source.

Reference type

In-text examples

Reference list example

Tables, Figures, Images or Appendices

Table 3. Examples of vaccine classes and associated industrial challenges [57].

Table 5. Chocolate related crime: Old Bailey court records [58].

Figure 3. Marconi’s grounded antenna [59].

Please Note: that the table number in these examples would be the table number in your document not the table number in the original document. The original table number must be cited in the reference list. If you change the table title in your document, you must cite the original title of the table in the reference list.

57.Smith J, Lipsitch M, Almond JW.Vaccine production, distribution, access, anduptake. Lancet 2011;378(9789):428-438. Table1, Examples of vaccine classes andassociated industrial challenges; p.429.

58.Grivetti LE. Chocolate, crime, and thecourts: Selected English Trial Documents, 1693-1834.In: Grivetti LE, Shapiro H, editors. Chocolate:History and culture. Hoboken, New Jersey. John Wiley& Sons; 2009. Table 20.1, Chocolate-relatedcrime: Old Bailey court records; p.244.

59.Hong S. Wireless: From Marconi’s black-box to the Audion. London, England. MIT Press; 2001. Figure 1.5, Marconi’s grounded antenna; p. 21.

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