Volume 11, Issue 2 (Spring 2021)                   PTJ 2021, 11(2): 103-110 | Back to browse issues page

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Arabi E, Nazemzadegan G H. Comparison of Upper Limb Disability in Overhead Women Athletes of Handball, Volleyball, Softball, and Swimming. PTJ. 2021; 11 (2) :103-110
URL: http://ptj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-466-en.html
1- Department of Health and Sport Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2- Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Shiraz, Shiraz, Iran.
Abstract:   (954 Views)
Purpose: The shoulder joint is one of the most commonly injured joints in sports and may lead to disability, especially in the upper extremities of overhead players (handball, volleyball, softball, and swimming).
Methods: This research is a causal-comparative study. After the approval of the Ethics Committee of the Medical University of Tehran, this study was conducted on 120 overhead athletes (Mean±SD height: 1.69±0.07 m, Mean±SD weight: 63.54±7.79 kg, Mean±SD age: 21.96±2.94 years, Mean±SD body mass index: 22.11±2.32 kg/m2). The inclusion criteria were elite female players in overhead sports with at least three years of experience in one of these sports (handball, volleyball, softball, and swimming). Samples with a history of surgery or cervical nerve problems, fractures in the shoulder area, and inflammatory joint disease were excluded from the study. The demographic information was obtained through a researcher-made questionnaire, and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) Questionnaire was used to measure the degree of upper limb disability in daily activities.
Results: In comparison between the study groups, a significant difference was observed between the dependent variable (DASH) and the research groups (F=6.067, df=3, P=0.002, Eta=0.342). Using the Bonferroni post hoc tests, the difference between volleyball and softball (P=0.44), volleyball and swimming (P=0.009), and handball and swimming players (P=0.022) were reported. In the next step, BMI characteristics, weekly training hours, and the number of training sessions per week were entered into the data analysis process as covariate variables (F=8.099, df=0.3, P=0.000, Eta=0.432). The Bonferroni post hoc test indicates the difference between volleyball and swimming athletes (P=0.001) and handball and swimming (P=0.002).
Conclusion: The present study results indicate a high rate of upper limb disability in elite women athletes. The present study results showed no difference between volleyball and handball due to the nature of these two disciplines and handball, softball, and swimming. 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2020/07/18 | Accepted: 2021/01/23 | Published: 2021/04/1

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